The Electro Magnetic Pulse Technology (EMPT) has a wide range of applications, which are not restricted to electro-magnetic forming.

Both welding (i.e. atomic bonding) and joining by a mechanical interlock are possible.   You can use our EMPT machines for 

processing of tubular components made from steels or high strength alloys even with a large wall thickness to diameter ratio. You can

use them also for non-magnetic metals such as aluminium and copper, because an eddy current is temporarily induced in the work 

piece.

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The EMPT

1. Metal forming by electro-magnetic fields? 2. Is this really possible? 3. Welding and joining without distortion and heat affected zones? 4. Can it be done in an industrial environment? 5. Can we implement this?   We reply to all these questions with a clear “YES”...

What are the Underlying Physical Principles of EMPT?

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Some time elapses while the sinusoidal current increases, until 

the first displacement of the cross section towards a smaller 

diameter takes place. During this period stresses inside the 

specimen increase rapidly, until their amplitude is sufficient to 

overcome the yield strength of the work piece as well as its 

inertia. Successively, the diameter reduction rate is rapidly 

increased, causing an end of the forming process prior to the 

zero point of the first half wave of the electrical current.

An alternating current in the range of 100kA can be supplied by

a pulse generator and is essential for the generation of the 

high-flux magnetic field. The pulse generator is assembled of a 

bank of capacitors, switches and associated charging and 

control devices. The first step to start a forming operation is to

charge the capacitors, and this lasts less than 10 seconds. 

Afterwards, a high-current switch, which separates coil and 

capacitors, is closed.

Now, the current oscillates at high frequency between capacitor

and coil. This set-up is capable to generate altering current in 

the range of some 100kA up to more than 1 Mega Ampere. Due 

to the capacitor charging time, the pulse generator can be 

operated through a conventional 380V/32A socket. The 

electricity for a PS60 system (60kJ) costs only approximately 

0.0015€ per pulse.  

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Current carrying conductors are affected by a force, when 

placed in a magnetic field. This force is called the Lorentz force.

Moreover, current carrying conductors will generate a 

surrounding magnetic field. Hence, two parallel wires will 

experience an attractive force, in case of equal current 

conduction direction. Otherwise, the conductors are forced 

apart, if the currents run in opposite directions. The same 

phenomenon happens, if a metallic tube is placed in a coil, 

through which an alternating current runs (AC). The coil 

induces a counter- rotating eddy current in the tube according

to Lenz’s law.

In conjunction with the coil’s magnetic field the induced eddy 

current causes a repulsive force in radial direction, as shown in

the figure.

The induced eddy current and 

magnetic force are represented for

the duration of one half wave of 

the altering current.When the 

current’s polarity is altered, a 

counter-rotating eddy current is 

induced once again within the 

tube.

Thus, there are no changes in direction of the resulting 

magnetic forces. Because of the component’s inertia, the 

forming operation is phase delayed with respect to the time- 

current function.

The figure illustrates the 

numerically calculated cross- 

sectional shape of an EMPT- 

specimen.